53% of women of reproductive age and 44% of children were found to be anemic. [188] Benjamin Netanyahu said that it is impossible to lift the siege on Gaza and that the security of Israel is the primary issue for him. In 2014, scores of homes in Rafah were destroyed for the buffer zone. Due to the crisis, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak ordered his troops to allow the Palestinians in but to verify that they did not bring weapons back across the border. In order to “(mis)explain the news” in the way Vox did yesterday, you’d have to be unfamiliar with all the talks about joining the West Bank and Gaza in the case of a future Palestinian state. [39][40][37][179][180][181], Director of the Shin Bet (Israel Security Agency) Yuval Diskin did not oppose easing trade restrictions, but said that smuggling tunnels in Sinai and an open seaport in the Gaza Strip endangered Israel's security. ), and between 3 and 4.5 miles (57 km.) [232], In early 2012, due to internal economic disagreement between the Palestinian Authority and the Hamas Government in Gaza, decreased supplies from Egypt and through tunnel smuggling, and Hamas's refusal to ship fuel via Israel, the Gaza Strip plunged into a fuel crisis, bringing increasingly long electricity shut downs and disruption of transportation. Its military wing is known as the Al-Nasser Salah al-Deen Brigades. The Gaza Strip is a territory in the Middle East. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Egyptian security forces uncovered 60 tunnels in 2007. 9, No. The program was created in Malaysia in 1993, according to the school principal, Majed al-Bari. In 2011, Salafists abducted and murdered a pro-Palestinian Italian activist, Vittorio Arrigoni. https://www.britannica.com/place/Gaza-Strip, Jewish Policy Center - GazaWATCH: History, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Gaza Strip, Gaza Strip - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Gaza Strip - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East. According to Amnesty International, under Hamas rule, newspapers were closed down and journalists were harassed. [138] Fatah demonstrations were forbidden or suppressed, as in the case of a large demonstration on the anniversary of Yasser Arafat's death, which resulted in the deaths of seven people, after protesters hurled stones at Hamas security forces. [130] The Hamas government of 2012 was the second Palestinian Hamas-dominated government, ruling over the Gaza Strip, since the split of the Palestinian National Authority in 2007. On July 8th, Israel launched Operation "Protective Edge" against Hamas in the Gaza strip. [174] As of 2015[update], on a third of Gaza's agricultural land, residents risk Israeli attacks. The blockade of the Gaza Strip is the ongoing land, air, and sea blockade of the Gaza Strip imposed by Israel and Egypt in 2007, after Hamas took control of the Gaza Strip during the Battle of Gaza, seizing government institutions and replacing Fatah and other Palestinian Authority … It is simply not plausible to argue that Israel exercises effective control over the Gaza Strip. Pursuant to the Oslo Accords signed in 1993, the Palestinian Authority became the administrative body that governed Palestinian population centers while Israel maintained control of the airspace, territorial waters and border crossings with the exception of the land border with Egypt which is controlled by Egypt. "[162] Writing in Newsweek, journalist Marc Schulman referred to Gaza as "an impoverished proto-state that lives off aid. Other factions include the Army of Islam, an Islamist faction of the Doghmush clan, the Nidal Al-Amoudi Battalion, an offshoot of the West Bank-based Fatah-linked al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, the Abu Ali Mustapha Brigades, the armed wing of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and the Sheikh Omar Hadid Brigade, an offshoot of ISIL. These also disrupted previously established labor and commodity market relationships between Israel and the Strip. [273], The Gaza Strip has been home to a significant branch of the contemporary Palestinian art movement since the mid 20th century. [195], Because of the Israeli–Egyptian blockade, the population is not free to leave or enter the Gaza Strip. In 2014 French President François Hollande called for the demilitarization of Gaza and a lifting of the blockade, saying "Gaza must neither be an open prison nor a military base. The Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades have an estimated 30,000 to 50,000 operatives. The Gaza Strip remained under Israeli military administration until 1994. For Robert S. Wistrich,[214] and Philip Mendes,[215] such analogies are designed to offend Jews, while Philip Seib dismisses the comparison as absurd, and claims that it arises from sources like Al Jazeera and statements by Arab leaders. The Gaza Strip is unusual in being a densely settled area not recognized as a de jure part of any extant country. The Israeli army makes use of drones, which can launch precise missiles. The Unity Government dissolved on 17 June 2015 after President Abbas said it was unable to operate in the Gaza Strip. After rule by the Ottoman Empire ended there in World War I (1914–18), the Gaza area became part of the League of Nations mandate of Palestine under British rule. The British mandate ended on May 15, 1948, and on that same day the first Arab-Israeli war began. Nevertheless, Gaza is a castrated state. Prior to disengagement, 120,000 Palestinians from Gaza had been employed in Israel or in joint projects. Recently, natural gas was discovered. The extent of self-rule exercised in the Gaza Strip has led some to describe the territory as a de facto independent state. World Health Organization (WHO) expressed its concerns about the consequences of the Palestinian internal political fragmentation; the socioeconomic decline; military actions; and the physical, psychological and economic isolation on the health of the population in Gaza. Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol. These factors demonstrate that Israel does not have control over Gaza. The PA failed to gain full governance in the area, though, and decided to cut funding to the Gaza Strip in 2018. Similarly, as the Nuremberg Tribunal ruled in the case of Wilhelm List and others (the Hostages Case), "an occupation indicates the exercise of governmental authority to the exclusion of the established government", meaning that the local "civil government [should be] eliminated". [251] However, there are no government laws imposing dress and other moral standards, and the Hamas education ministry reversed one effort to impose Islamic dress on students. Shortly after, Hamas took control of the Gaza Strip in the course of the Battle of Gaza,[87] seizing government institutions and replacing Fatah and other government officials with its own. After the Israeli withdrawal in 2005 the Oslo Accords give the Palestinian Authority administrative authority in the Gaza Strip. Hamas maintains a judicial system with civilian and military courts and a public prosecution service.[130][132]. The comparison is done by observers, ranging from Roger Cohen and Lawrence Weschler to NGOs, such as B'tselem, and politicians and diplomats, such as David Cameron, Noam Chomsky, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, David Shoebridge and Sir John Holmes[200][201][202][203][204][205][206][207] In politically stable times, as much as one-tenth of the Palestinian population travels daily to Israel (where they are not allowed to stay overnight) to work in menial jobs. [104] Israeli defense sources said that Defense Minister Ehud Barak instructed the IDF to prepare for the operation six months before it began, using long-term planning and intelligence-gathering. This area became known as the Gaza Strip. The terrain is flat or rolling, with dunes near the coast. West Bank and Gaza Strip may refer to: . No Israeli soldiers were left there after the disengagement. "[163], As agreed between Israel and the Palestinian Authority in the Oslo Accords, Israel has exclusive control over the airspace. '[193], Israel has alternately restricted or allowed goods and people to cross the terrestrial border and handles vicariously the movement of goods into and out of Gaza by air and sea. [62], Former railway: see Palestine Railways#Railway in the Gaza Strip. [153], In a legal analysis Hanne Cuyckens agrees with the Israeli position that Gaza is no longer occupied - "Gaza is not technically occupied, given that there is no longer any effective control in the sense of Article 42 of the Hague Regulations. [175] According to Amnesty International, more than 800 homes had been destroyed and more than 1,000 families evicted. The Gaza Strip is unusual in being a densely settled area not recognized as a de jure part of any extant country. Israel destroyed Gaza's only airport in 2001 and 2002, during the Second Intifada.[165][166]. During the Crusades, the city of Gaza was reported to be mostly abandoned and in ruins; the region was placed under the direct administration of the Knights Templar during the Kingdom of Jerusalem; it was traded back and forth several times between Christian and Muslim rule during the 12th century, before the Crusader founded kingdom lost control permanently and the land became part of the Ayyubid dynasty's lands for a century until the Mongol ruler Hulagu Khan destroyed the city. [35] In July 2014, a set of lethal incidents between Hamas and Israel led to the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict. [90] Arab foreign ministers and Palestinian officials presented a united front against control of the border by Hamas. To the southwest, it shares a seven-mile border with Egypt. The Philistines, mentioned frequently in The Bible, were located in the region, and the city was captured by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE during his Egyptian campaign. 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